How does alpha bungarotoxin work?
Bungarotoxins function by modulating acetylcholine neurotransmission in both muscles and neurons. α-Bungarotoxin irreversibly blocks the binding of acetylcholine (ACh) to postsynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAchR) on both muscle and neurons.
What does alpha bungarotoxin bind?
In native, fully-hydrated nAChR membranes, α-bungarotoxin binds to the nAChR outer vestibule and contacts the surface of the membrane bilayer.
Is Alpha Bungarotoxin a protein or steroid?
It is a type of α-neurotoxin, a neurotoxic protein that is known to bind competitively and in a relatively irreversible manner to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor found at the neuromuscular junction, causing paralysis, respiratory failure, and death in the victim.
Why is alpha bungarotoxin toxic?
It is a type of ‘±-neurotoxin, a neurotoxic protein that is known to bind irreversibly and competitively to the acetylcholine receptor found at the neuromuscular junction, causing paralysis, respiratory failure and death in the victim.
How is alpha bungarotoxin treated?
α-Bungarotoxin suppresses the sensitivity of the endplate membrane to acetylcholine. There is no effect on resting or action potentials of muscle, and there is no presynaptic effect. The neuromuscular block can be reversed by neostigmine and prevented by pretreatment with d-tubocurarine.
Is Bungarotoxin an agonist or antagonist?
The snake neurotoxin α-bungarotoxin (α-Bgtx) is a competitive antagonist at nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and is widely used to study their function and cell-surface expression.
Is Bungarotoxin reversible?
The toxin interferes with transmission at the skeletal neuromuscular junction by binding selectively and with high affinity (Kd 10− 11–10− 9 M) to postsynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) (Nirthanan and Gwee, 2004); the binding is very poorly reversible resulting in an essentially irreversible blockade.
How do cholinergic receptors work?
Cholinergic receptors are receptors on the surface of cells that get activated when they bind a type of neurotransmitter called acetylcholine. They’re composed of a cell body, which contains all the organelles, and nerve fibers, which are projections that extend out from the neuron cell body.
What is the effect of bungarotoxin binding on the postsynaptic cell?
Post-synaptic (curaremimetic) neurotoxins, or α-neurotoxins, such as α-bungarotoxin and cobrotoxin bind to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors at the motor end-plates of skeletal muscles, causing generalized flaccid paralysis and death from bulbar and respiratory muscle weakness.
What does Alpha Conotoxin do?
alpha-Conotoxins (alpha-CgTxs) are a family of Cys-enriched peptides found in several marine snails from the genus Conus. These small peptides behave pharmacologically as competitive antagonists of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR).
What are the 5 muscarinic receptors?
Muscarinic receptors are divided into five main subtypes M1, M2, M3, M4, and M5.  While each subtype exists within the central nervous system, they are encoded by separate genes and localized to different tissue types.
What is the difference between muscarinic and nicotinic receptors?
Main Difference – Nicotinic vs Muscarinic Receptors The main difference between nicotinic and muscarinic receptors is that nicotinic receptors become ion channels for sodium upon binding of the acetylcholine to the receptor whereas muscarinic receptors phosphorylate various second messengers.
What is alpha-bungarotoxin?
Alpha-bungarotoxin (α-BTX) is a neurotoxin contained in the venom of the Taiwanese many-banded krait. It produces paralysis of striated muscles by blocking cholinergic receptors in the neuromuscular junction. The toxin also blocks a subtype of neuronal cholinergic receptor (α7) located in the central and peripheral nervous systems.
What is the activity of α-bungarotoxin in chloramine T?
α-Bungarotoxin is iodinated by the chloramine-T method at a specific activity of 20–35 Ci/nmol. Preliminary saturation and kinetic experiments are performed in order to calculate the Kd and Bmax of the 125 I-labeled α-BgTX to COL membrane.
What is the molecular weight of α-bungarotoxin?
The structure consists of a single polypeptide chain containing 74 amino acids (molecular weight about 8000) cross-linked by five disulfide bridges. α-Bungarotoxin is a highly specific blocker of the junctional postsynaptic acetylcholine receptor. When labeled with 125I, it is used to quantify acetylcholine receptors.
What is α-BTX used for?
The toxin also blocks a subtype of neuronal cholinergic receptor (α7) located in the central and peripheral nervous systems. Although α-BTX is not used clinically, it is an important experimental tool for studying the properties of cholinergic receptors.