How is rig activated?
RIG-I is activated by the binding of an RNA substrate containing 5′-triphosphorylated short double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), although the absolute requirement for recognition is the basic duplex RNA. In contrast to RIG-I, MDA5 is activated by long double-stranded RNA (1, 3).
What does Rig 1 recognize?
RIG-I is an essential molecule in the innate immune system for recognizing cells that have been infected with a virus. These viruses can include West Nile virus, Japanese Encephalitis virus, influenza A, Sendai virus, flavivirus, and coronaviruses.
What do rig like receptors do?
Retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs) are key sensors of virus infection, mediating the transcriptional induction of type I interferons and other genes that collectively establish an antiviral host response.
What do rig like receptors bind to?
The RIG-I receptor prefers to bind short (<2000 bp) single- or double-stranded RNA carrying an uncapped 5′ triphosphate and additional motifs such as poly-uridine rich RNA motifs.
What do RLRs recognize?
RIG-like receptors (retinoic acid-inducible gene-I-like receptors, RLRs) are a type of intracellular pattern recognition receptor involved in the recognition of viruses by the innate immune system.
Is Rig 1 a TLR?
Here we demonstrate an unanticipated role of RIG-I in Toll-like receptor (TLR)-stimulated phagocytosis. Thus, the regulatory functions of RIG-I are strikingly broad, including a role not only in antiviral responses but in antibacterial responses as well.
What cytokines are induced by rig-I-like receptors?
1 RIG-I-Like Receptors (RLRs) The RLRs are DexD/H helicases that stably bind cytosolic viral ssRNA or dsRNA to induce production of antiviral IFNs and pro-inflammatory cytokines.
Is PRR a TLR?
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) which play a crucial in the initiation of innate immune response by detecting potential harmful pathogens.
How do NLRs and TLRs differ?
TLRs are pattern recognition receptors that detect motifs or signatures from bacteria, viruses, protozoa and fungi. NLRs detect mainly intracellular bacteria and RLRs detect viral genome.
What do rig like receptors bind?
What do rig like receptors recognize?
What happens after PRR activation?
PRR-induced signal transduction pathways ultimately result in the activation of gene expression and synthesis of a broad range of molecules, including cytokines, chemokines, cell adhesion molecules, and immunoreceptors (7), which together orchestrate the early host response to infection and at the same time represent …
How does RIG-I activate type I IFN pathway signaling?
After detecting RNA virus, RIG-I activates the signal transduction of type I IFN signal pathway and induces the expression of IFN-β, proinflammatory cytokines and hundreds of ISGs, suppressing viral replication by various mechanisms. SeV is a model RNA virus routinely used to activates type I IFN pathway signaling in cell culture [ 27, 28, 29 ].
What is the function of the RIG I receptor?
RIG-I is a pattern recognition receptor and recognizes cytoplasmic viral double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). Influenza A virus, hepatitis C virus, and several other pathogenic viruses are mainly recognized by RIG-I, resulting in the activation of the innate immune responses.
Is riplet-mediated polyubiquitination of RIG-I essential for RIG-I activation during viral infection?
These observations indicate that Riplet-mediated polyubiquitination of RIG-I is essential for RIG-I activation during viral infection in vivo.
Is RIG-I essential for sensing SVV during RNA virus infection?
Gene knockout studies have distinguished the roles of RIG-I and MDA5 in response to RNA viruses. FMDV is mainly sensed by MDA5, however, in the present study, RIG-I is essential for type I IFN pathway activation during SVV infection. This implies that RIG-I might be responsible for sensing of SVV.