What are halogenated hydrocarbons and their toxicity?

What are halogenated hydrocarbons and their toxicity?

Halogenated hydrocarbons may cause dysrhythmias and hepatotoxicity, where aromatic hydrocarbons may cause bone marrow suppression and cancer. Initial orders should include a chest radiograph to aid in determining the extent of lung injury.

What is halogenated hydrocarbon?

Halogenated hydrocarbons, also known as halocarbons, are hydrocarbon compounds in which at least one hydrogen atom is replaced by a halogen (Group VII A of the Periodic Table) atom, such as fluorine, chlorine, or bromine.

Which hydrocarbons are toxic?

All hydrocarbons can be toxic, but aromatic (ring-shaped) and halogenated hydrocarbons typically have more severe toxicity.

Why are halogenated hydrocarbons bad?

Halogenated hydrocarbons (HHCs) are totally artificial compounds, and are not found in nature. They are very persistent in the environment and in living organisms, having an affinity for high-fat tissues including the nervous system. Some of these man-made chemicals can disrupt normal endocrine physiology in animals.

How do we treat halogenated hydrocarbons?

A method for pretreating a halogenated hydrocarbon feed to a hydrothermal oxidation reactor which includes forming a combination of a halogenated hydrocarbon with added alkali under hydrothermal conditions, adding water to the combination, thereby effectuating hydrolysis of the halogenated hydrocarbon so as to liberate …

What makes hydrocarbons and derivatives harmful?

Hydrocarbons are oily liquids. Some hydrocarbons can cause other effects, including coma, seizures, irregular heart rhythms or damage to the kidneys or liver. Examples of products that contain dangerous hydrocarbons include some solvents used in paints and dry cleaning and household cleaning chemicals.

What is a halogenated hydrocarbon used for?

Many halogenated hydrocarbons have important commercial applications. Alkyl halides are important intermediates in synthesis, as solvents in the laboratory and industry, and as dry cleaning fluids. They also find use as anesthetics and refrigerants. For example, trichloroethene is a common dry cleaning solvent.

What is the predominant hazard of most hydrocarbons?

Toxicity from hydrocarbon ingestion can affect many different organs, but the lungs are the most commonly affected. The chemical properties of the individual hydrocarbon determine the specific toxicity, while the dose and route of ingestion affect which organs are exposed to the toxicity.

What is the difference between halogenated and non halogenated?

As adjectives the difference between halogenated and nonhalogenated. is that halogenated is (chemistry) treated or reacted with a halogen while nonhalogenated is not halogenated.

Where are halogenated hydrocarbons used?

The fluorinated hydrocarbons (Freons) are used as refrigerants, industrial solvents, fire extinguishers, local anesthetics, and glass chillers, but mainly as propellants in aerosol products. Methyl bromide, methyl chloride, and methyl iodide are used as refrigerants in chemical synthesis and as fumigants.

How are hydrocarbons harmful?

Hydrocarbons are oily liquids. Many are not harmful unless the oily liquid gets into the lungs. However, if it enters the lungs, it can cause a pneumonia-like condition; irreversible, permanent lung damage; and even death.

Where do halogenated hydrocarbons come from?

Halogenated hydrocarbons are common because they are widely used as effective, yet relatively nonflammable solvents, unlike kerosene or gasoline. Halogenated hydrocarbons are also formed during the chlorination of drinking water when chlorine combines with organic material in the water.

What are the long-term effects of hydrocarbon toxicity?

Individuals who regularly abuse hydrocarbons are more likely to be polysubstance users, exhibit criminal or violent behavior, and develop memory and other cognitive deficits. Heavy, long-term use results in cerebellar dysfunction, encephalopathy, weakness, and dementia.

What is the pathophysiology of hydrocarbon toxicity?

Acute hydrocarbon exposure can result in a wide array of pathology, such as encephalopathy, pneumonitis, arrhythmia, acidosis, and dermatitis. Intentional inhalational and accidental ingestion exposures with aspiration lead to the greatest morbidity and mortality.

How do hydrocarbons affect the central nervous system?

Results: Exposure to hydrocarbons occurs through one of the following routes: inhalation, ingestion with or without aspiration, or dermal exposure. Inhalational abuse is associated with central nervous system depression, metabolic acidosis, and arrhythmia.

What is the pathophysiology of hydrocarbon aspiration pneumonia?

Aspiration of hydrocarbons causes a potentially fatal pneumonitis. Symptoms may include cough, wheezing respiratory distress, and hypoxia. Bilateral interstitial infiltrates may be delayed for several hours after the development of pneumonitis.