What causes hypergammaglobulinemia?
Known infectious causes of polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia include parasitic infections such as malaria, schistosomiasis, strongyloidiasis and leishmaniasis, and fungal infections such as paracoccidiodomycosis and histoplasmosis (Table 1).
What is the cause of Hypogammaglobulinemia?
Hypogammaglobulinemia may result from lack of production, excessive loss of immunoglobulins, or both. Congenital disorders affecting B-cell development can result in complete or partial absence of one or more Ig isotypes.
What is gamma globulin given for?
Immune (Gamma Globulin) Therapy (also called IG therapy) is used to treat immune deficiency conditions that can make you susceptible to infections or autoimmune conditions that affect your nerves causing numbness, weakness or stiffness. IG therapy can be given through a vein (IV) or under the skin (subcutaneously/SC).
What causes polyclonal increase?
Liver disease, autoimmune disease, chronic viral or bacterial infections and various malignancies may cause a polyclonal rise in the gamma fraction (see Table 2 below). Polyclonal pattern serum protein electrophoresis (SPEP).
Is hypergammaglobulinemia serious?
Dangers to people with hypergammaglobulinemia High levels of gamma globulins in the blood are dangerous because these can lead to an increased likelihood of contracting viruses and infections. Hypergammaglobulinemia leads to increased vulnerability to: anemia. respiratory infections.
What causes Paraproteinemia?
Causes. Causes of paraproteinemia include the following: Leukemias and lymphomas of various types, but usually B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas with a plasma cell component. Idiopathic (no discernible cause): some of these will be revealed as leukemias or lymphomas over the years.
How do you treat hypogammaglobulinemia?
The standard treatment for hypogammaglobulinemia is IgG replacement, which may be given intravenously or subcutaneously.
Is gamma globulin still used?
Use as medical treatment Such injections are less common in modern medical practice than they were previously, and injections of gamma globulin previously recommended for travelers have largely been replaced by the use of hepatitis A vaccine.
Is immune globulin a medication?
Immune globulin injection belongs to a group of medicines known as immunizing agents.
How do you treat hypergammaglobulinemia?
Since hypergammaglobulinemia is caused by other conditions, there aren’t many direct treatment options available. But you can improve or cure this condition by treating other underlying infections, immune disorders, and diseases. One uncommon treatment for this condition is immunoglobulin replacement therapy.
Is hypogammaglobulinemia a autoimmune disease?
Many autoimmune diseases have been described in the course of hypogammaglobulinemia, such as cytopenias, inflammatory bowel disease, seronegative arthritis, Sjögren’s syndrome, uveitis, vasculitis, and vitiligo (22,23).
What is hypergammaglobulinemia?
Hypergammaglobulinemia is an uncommon condition that is usually the result of an infection, autoimmune disorder, or malignancy such as multiple myeloma. It’s characterized by elevated levels of immunoglobulins in your blood.
What are the treatment options for hypergammaglobulinemia?
While there are many treatment options for the underlying causes of hypergammaglobulinemia, there are very few treatments for the hypergammaglobulinemia itself. The most prominent one is immunoglobulin replacement therapy.
What is the most common antibody in hypergammaglobulinemia?
The most common antibody is Immunoglobulin G (IgG). People with hypergammaglobulinemia most often have increased levels of IgG. Monoclonal and polyclonal gammopathies Most cases of hypergammaglobulinemia are polyclonal gammopathies.
What is the difference between hyper IgM syndrome and hypergammaglobulinemia?
MeSH considers hyper IgM syndrome to be a form of dysgammaglobulinemia, not a form of hypergammaglobulinemia.