What is a peripheral giant cell granuloma?

What is a peripheral giant cell granuloma?

Peripheral giant cell granuloma (PGCG) is the most common oral giant cell lesion appearing as a soft tissue extra-osseous purplish-red nodule consisting of multinucleated giant cells in a background of mononuclear stromal cells and extravasated red blood cells.

What causes peripheral giant cell granuloma?

The cause of peripheral giant cell granuloma is unknown, although local irritation due to dental plaque or calculus, periodontal disease, poor dental restorations, ill-fitting dental appliances, or dental extractions has been suggested to contribute to the development of the lesion.

What is the difference between central and peripheral giant cell granuloma?

Lesions confined predominantly to intraosseous sites (e.g., jaw) are referred to as central giant cell granulomas, and those involving primarily soft tissues (e.g., sinonasal, oral) are termed peripheral giant cell granulomas.

How is peripheral giant cell granuloma diagnosed?

Diagnosis. Peripheral giant-cell granuloma appears microscopically as a large number of multinucleated giant cells, which can have up to dozens of nuclei. Additionally, there are mesenchymal cells that are ovoid and spindle-shaped. Near the borders of the lesion, deposits of hemosiderin and hemorrhage is often found.

Is peripheral giant cell granuloma a true granuloma?

Differential Diagnosis Generally, this lesion is clinically indistinguishable from a pyogenic granuloma. Although a peripheral giant cell granuloma is more likely to cause bone resorption than is a pyogenic granuloma, the differences are otherwise minimal.

Where does peripheral giant cell granuloma occur?

Peripheral Giant Cell Granuloma (PGCG) is the most common giant cell lesion found in the jaws; it originates from the connective tissue of the periosteum or from the periodontal ligament in response to local chronic irritation.

What is the difference between pyogenic granuloma and peripheral giant cell granuloma?

The pyogenic granuloma can occur anywhere in the oral cavity, whereas the peripheral ossifying fibroma and peripheral giant cell granuloma only occur on the gingiva or alveolar mucosa. The clinical appearance, treatment, and prognosis are the same for all 3 entities.

How are giant cell granulomas treated?


  1. There have been reports of central GCGs resolving spontaneously; however, treatment is often required.
  2. The typical small, slow-growing lesions can be treated with nonsurgical methods, including radiotherapy, daily calcitonin injections, intralesional corticosteroid injections, and interferon alpha.

How do you treat peripheral giant cell granulomas?

Peripheral giant cell granuloma is treated by surgical excision. Removal must include all the giant cell tissue, because recurrences are common. In the dentulous patient this usually requires removal of one or more teeth and curettage of the socket.

What are the types of giant cells?

Types of Giant Cells

  • Macrophage derived. Langhans’ giant cells. Foreign body giant cells (FBGCs)
  • Epidermal cell derived. Tzanck giant cells. Multi-nucleated epidermal giant cells.
  • Melanocyte derived. Starburst giant cells. Giant cells in melanocytic nevus.
  • Other giant cells. Floret-like multi-nucleated giant cells (FMGCs).

What is peripheral ameloblastoma?

Peripheral Ameloblastoma (PA) is a benign odontogenic tumor, arising from the cell rest of Serres, reduced enamel epithelium and basal cells of the surface epithelium. Peripheral ameloblastoma is a rare odontogenic neoplasm occurring commonly in the mandibular gingiva.