What is CTK after Lasik?

What is CTK after Lasik?

Central toxic keratopathy (CTK) is a noninflammatory opacification of the central corneal stroma following laser refractive surgery. Striae and hyperopic refractive shift are the common accompanying signs of this syndrome. 1. Corneal clouding after laser refractive surgery is uncommon.

What is DLK after Lasik?

Diffuse lamellar keratitis (DLK) is a relatively infrequent complication of LASIK [1]. It may occur after any surgical procedure in which a corneal lamellar incision has created an interface through the stromal tissue.

What is diffuse lamellar keratitis?

Diffuse lamellar keratitis (DLK) describes a rare, noninfectious complication of refractive surgery that is characterized by inflammatory infiltrates beneath the corneal flap interface.

What is epithelial ingrowth?

Epithelial ingrowth is the presence of corneal epithelium in an area where it does not belong. After LASIK, epithelial ingrowth can occur in the interface between the flap and the stromal bed of the patient’s cornea.

What is corneal exposure?

Exposure keratopathy (also known as exposure keratitis) is damage to the cornea due to dryness caused by incomplete or inadequate eyelid closure, resulting in loss or insufficiency of the tear film. It is usually a mild condition that is simple to treat.

Is DLK curable?

In mild cases, DLK rarely affects vision and is easily treatable. Left untreated, it can cause permanent damage, including reduction in visual acuity, scarring and stromal melt. A very severe case of DLK.

How is DLK treated?

DLK may be successfully treated with topical corticosteroids or flushing the interface in some cases. In rare cases, a bacterial or fungal organism can be the cause of the inflammation and should always be considered if the patient does not respond to the treatment.

How long does inflammation last after LASIK?

Corneal swelling, known as corneal edema, is common during the LASIK recovery period. For most patients, swelling in the cornea is temporary and will resolve on its own over the course of a few weeks. In some cases, swelling may continue for one or two months, but seldom is edema an issue after week eight.

What does epithelial ingrowth look like?

Epithelial ingrowth looks like white or gray nests of cells. Sometimes, finger-like extensions from the flap edge can be seen. If the patient has a buttonhole in the center of the flap and epithelial ingrowth, the extensions appear near the buttonhole.

Can epithelial ingrowth cause blindness?

Most epithelial ingrowth does not affect vision and does not require treatment.

Is Bell’s phenomenon normal?

However, the Bell’s phenomenon itself is a normal reflex seen in eight out of ten people. It basically protects the eyeball (especially the cornea) against sudden contact with a potentially traumatizing agent. For instance, when a person blinks or when the eye is threatened by any object, the eyeballs roll up.

How is Proptosis diagnosed?

An eye doctor can diagnosis proptosis by examining your eye. They can use a special tool called an exophthalmometer to measure your level of eyeball protrusion. Your doctor will also review your medical history and ask you questions about your symptoms.

What is central toxic keratopathy (CTK)?

Central toxic keratopathy (CTK) describes a rare, acute, non-inflammatory complication most associated with excimer laser ablation surgery (e.g., laser assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) or photorefractive keratopathy (PTK) surgery). However, idiopathic cases have been reported and an association with contact lens use has been made.

What is the pathophysiology of central corneal opacification in cataract surgery (CTK)?

The central corneal opacification in CTK may begin with diffuse lamellar keratitis (DLK) on post-surgery day 1 or 2 and quickly gives rise to a dense opacification of the central corneal stroma ; however prior DLK is not necessary for diagnosis and cases have been reported without preceding DLK.

Is CTK an inflammatory or non-inflammatory disease?

Fraenkel and colleagues first described CTK in 1989 as being inflammatory in nature but the condition has subsequently been recognized as a non-inflammatory process. Although the exact cause of CTK is ambiguous , several theories abound regarding possible factors contributing to the development of CTK.

What are the signs and symptoms of central retinal keloid (CTK)?

Similarly, OCT images of eyes affected with CTK will typically demonstrate central corneal thinning, central backscattering, and higher internal reflectivity when compared to normal eyes . Patients with CTK typically develop dense central corneal opacification, stromal tissue loss, striae, and significant hyperopic refractive shift .