What is malaria surveillance system?
The malaria surveillance system in Kano State collates data that are not representative of all health facilities as data from the two tertiary health facilities and all private facilities were not included in the general state data.
What is the mechanism of malaria?
The mosquitoes first take in the parasite by feeding on the blood of an infected person. In the mosquitoes’ gut the gametocytes (male and female) from the infected person fuse to form an ookinete that penetrates the gut lining and produces an oocyst in the gut wall.
What is malaria type 4?
The Disease Four kinds of malaria parasites infect humans: Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale, and P. malariae.
Is malaria non vectored?
There are approximately 3,500 species of mosquitoes grouped into 41 genera. Human malaria is transmitted only by females of the genus Anopheles. Of the approximately 430 Anopheles species, only 30-40 transmit malaria (i.e., are “vectors”) in nature.
What is active surveillance testing?
For purposes of NHSN surveillance, Active Surveillance Culture/Testing (ASC/AST) refers to testing that is intended to identify the presence/carriage of microorganisms for the purpose of instituting or discontinuing isolation precautions (for example, nasal swab for MRSA, rectal swab for VRE), or monitoring for …
What is surveillance monitoring and evaluation?
This process is known as monitoring and evaluation, or M&E. M&E activities are closely aligned to disease surveillance activities and the two go hand-in-hand within a VL control programme. The main aim of M&E and disease surveillance for VL control is to generate evidence for planning and decision making.
What is the malaria life cycle?
The malaria parasite life cycle involves two hosts. During a blood meal, a malaria-infected female Anopheles mosquito inoculates sporozoites into the human host . Sporozoites infect liver cells and mature into schizonts , which rupture and release merozoites . (Of note, in P.
What are the three stages of malaria?
When the parasite infects animals, it attacks in three stages: It goes into liver cells first, then enters blood cells, and finally forms gametes that can be transmitted to mosquitos. Most treatments primarily target parasites in the blood stage, which causes malaria’s symptoms—fever, vomiting, and coma.
Can malaria go away without treatment?
With proper treatment, symptoms of malaria usually go away quickly, with a cure within two weeks. Without proper treatment, malaria episodes (fever, chills, sweating) can return periodically over a period of years. After repeated exposure, patients will become partially immune and develop milder disease.
What are the 5 types of malaria?
Five species of Plasmodium (single-celled parasites) can infect humans and cause illness:
- Plasmodium falciparum (or P. falciparum)
- Plasmodium malariae (or P. malariae)
- Plasmodium vivax (or P. vivax)
- Plasmodium ovale (or P. ovale)
- Plasmodium knowlesi (or P. knowlesi)
What is the vector of malaria?
Malaria parasites are transmitted to human hosts by female mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles. A diverse group of Anopheles (30 to 40 species) serves as vectors of human disease.