What is the complete pathophysiology of an anaphylaxis reaction?

What is the complete pathophysiology of an anaphylaxis reaction?

Anaphylaxis is an acute, potentially fatal, multiorgan system reaction caused by the release of chemical mediators from mast cells and basophils. The classic form involves prior sensitization to an allergen with later re-exposure, producing symptoms via an immunologic mechanism. (See Pathophysiology and Etiology.)

What is hypersensitivity reaction carboplatin?

Hypersensitivity reactions (HSRs) to carboplatin can occur, often after numerous doses. The reactions can range from mild to life threatening. Oncology nurses witness the reactions and are instrumental in providing interventions to assist patients.

When does hypersensitivity reaction occur with carboplatin?

(Markman, 2007) reported that carboplatin-related hypersensitivity reactions rarely occur before cycle 6 or <3,000 mg of drug delivery, with the first episode most commonly occurring with carboplatin administration in the second-line setting, and carboplatin administration beyond 9 cycles or 6,000 mg increasing the …

Can chemo cause anaphylaxis?

Severe allergic reactions are known as anaphylaxis. Any breast cancer medication can cause an allergic reaction: chemotherapy: Abraxane (chemical name: albumin-bound or nab-paclitaxel)

Which chemotherapy drugs cause anaphylaxis?

Carboplatin and other paltins such as cisplatin and oxaliplatin reactions include classical symptoms of anaphylaxis with cutaneous, respiratory, cardiovascular, and gastrointestinal symptoms.

What happens if you have an allergic reaction to chemotherapy?

You are experiencing anaphylaxis—a life-threatening allergic reaction with symptoms including light-headedness; face, throat, and tongue swelling; difficulty breathing; and chest discomfort. The horror of an anaphylactic reaction is upsetting enough, but the news that follows is most crippling.

What is the etiology of anaphylaxis?

Anaphylaxis is a severe allergic reaction to venom, food, or medication. Most cases are caused by a bee sting or eating foods that are known to cause allergies, such as peanuts or tree nuts.

How does anaphylaxis cause bronchoconstriction?

H1 receptor stimulation causes bronchoconstriction, systemic vasodilation, intestinal and uterine smooth muscle contraction, increased capillary permeability, increase in nasal mucus production and coronary artery constriction, producing many of the signs and symptoms exhibited in anaphylaxis.

Does carboplatin cause hypotension?

It is concluded that the intravenous administration of paclitaxel at a dose of 175 mg/m2 in combination with carboplatin affects the sympathetic heart innervation, resulting in primarily systolic orthostatic hypotension during the treatment period.

What are the common side effects of carboplatin?

Stomach pain, body aches/pain, diarrhea, constipation, weakness, nausea, and vomiting may occur. Nausea and vomiting can be severe in some patients but usually go away within 24 hours of treatment.

What chemotherapy drug has a high potential for immediate hypersensitivity reaction?

Hypersensitivity allergic reactions have been reported with most chemotherapy drugs, although they are generally infrequent. They occur more commonly with L-asparaginase, paclitaxel, docetaxel, teniposide, procarbazine, and cytarabine.

Why do they give Benadryl during chemo?

RATIONALE: Diphenhydramine, lorazepam, and dexamethasone may help lessen or prevent nausea and vomiting in patients treated with chemotherapy.

What is the pathophysiology of carboplatin hypersensitivity reactions?

Carboplatin (CP) hypersensitivity reactions have been reported in nearly 12 % of patients treated with this drug. The pathophysiologic mechanisms of these reactions have not been entirely elucidated. Various hypotheses are under discussion.

When should skin testing be used in the evaluation of carboplatin hypersensitivity?

Many physicians currently do not use skin testing prior to 8th cycle of carboplatin therapy and retreat their patients with carboplatin after the first hypersensitivity reaction.

How does carboplatin affect the cell cycle?

According to molecular analyses, cisplatin, carboplatin, and oxaliplatin affect various genes, many of which regulate cell cycle and signal transduction [87, 88]. 5. Symptoms Platinum hypersensitivity symptoms may develop acutely during infusion or within minutes, hours, or days after the infusion [32].

How to prevent hypersensitivity reactions during carboplatin retreatment in ovarian cancer patients?

The prophylactic conversion to an extended infusion schedule and use of premedication to prevent hypersensitivity reactions in ovarian cancer patients during carboplatin retreatment. Gynecologic Oncology. 2010;116(3):326–331.