What is the mechanism of action of diphtheria toxin?
Diphtheria toxin kills cells by inhibiting eukaryotic protein synthesis, and its mechanism of action has been extensively characterized. This potent toxin inactivates elongation factor (EF-2) required for protein synthesis (Collier, 1967).
What is the function of Corynebacterium diphtheriae protein DtxR?
The DtxR protein is known to function as a global regulator of metabolism in C. diphtheriae. It is not only involved in the regulation of expression of diphtheria toxin but also responsible for regulating the synthesis and production of the C.
What type of toxin is diphtheria?
Diphtheria toxin is an exotoxin secreted by Corynebacterium, the pathogenic bacterium that causes diphtheria. The toxin gene is encoded by a prophage called corynephage β. The toxin causes the disease in humans by gaining entry into the cell cytoplasm and inhibiting protein synthesis.
What is the characteristic toxin produced by Corynebacterium diphtheria?
Corynebacterium diphtheriae is an aerobic gram-positive bacterium which secretes a toxin that inactivates human elongation factor eEF-2, thus inhibiting translation during protein synthesis by human cells.
How does anthrax toxin work?
Anthrax toxin allows the bacteria to evade the immune system, proliferate, and ultimately kill the host animal. Research on anthrax toxin also provides insight into the generation of macromolecular assemblies, and on protein translocation, pore formation, endocytosis, and other biochemical processes.
How is diphtheria toxin formed?
Diphtheria toxin is synthesized by toxigenic strains of Corynebacterium diphtheriae in precursor form and following cleavage of its 25 amino acid signal sequence, it is released into the culture medium as a 535 amino acid single chain protein [2,3,4].
Is diphtheria toxin an antigen?
The diphtheria toxoid antigen is a major component in pediatric and booster combination vaccines and is known to raise a protective humoral immune response upon vaccination.
What is anthrax chemical?
Anthrax toxin is a three-protein exotoxin secreted by virulent strains of the bacterium, Bacillus anthracis—the causative agent of anthrax. The toxin was first discovered by Harry Smith in 1954.
What part of cell signaling does anthrax inhibit?
Anthrax infection inhibits the AKT signaling involved in the E-cadherin-mediated adhesion of lung epithelial cells.
How does diphtheria toxin inhibit protein synthesis?
Diphtheria Toxin (DT) Diphtheria toxin (DT) functions like other toxins by inhibiting protein synthesis either by modifying elongation factor-2 (EF2) or by acting directly on the ribosome (Siegall, 1994).